Dynamic compression offers a route to extreme conditions of pressure and temperature that go beyond what is possible today by static compression. Exotic states of matter can be attained, such as Warm Dense Matter, relevant for planetary science, for the description of the interior of the planets and extrasolar planets, fundamental science, to constrain theoretical models, and energy science, for Inertial Confinement Fusion.

In more moderate conditions, dynamic compression can be used to look at the behavior of matter and materials under high strain rates that can strongly differ from the static case. This area of research also encompasses industrial processes such as laser machining or synthesis of new materials.